6 nutrients and how to calculate calorie needs.

In previous chapters, we talked about some of the 6 nutrients and their importance. In addition, in order for a personal trainer to assess the essential nutrients that a client needs, he must know his food intake and energy needs. However, in order to understand the relationship between body and food and to advise clients on nutritional issues, it is important to know well the importance of 6 nutrients: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals, and water.

Chapter 4. Today we will discuss VITAMINS, MINERALS AND WATER

Recommendations for the intake of vitamins and minerals

reference food intake (DRI) used in the United States and Canada (known as the reference diet in Spain). These are vitamin and mineral intake guidelines prepared by the Nutritional and Nutrition Board. Nutrition and Food Committee of the Institute of Medicine, an organization affiliated to the National Academies of the United States. Age-based DRIs based on gender, age, pregnancy and lactation are intended for use in assessing diets in healthy individuals.

How to Estimate Your Actual Vitamin and Mineral Intake

A personal trainer with computer analysis of his client’s diet can estimate the actual intake of vitamins and minerals by comparing them with these recommendations. DRIs were first used in 1997 and replaced the recommended diets. They recommended consumption volumes that have been published since 1941. DRIs represent an approach that emphasizes long-term health and not deficiency diseases. They are divided into four categories.

6 Nutrientes. Vitaminas y minerales, como calcular necesidades calóricas

Categories of Recommended Vitamins and Minerals

  1. Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). This is the intake that covers the nutrient needs of most healthy people (97% to 98%) for a specific age and gender group.
  2. adequate consumption, adequate consumption. This consumption should be achieved when it is not possible to obtain enough information to calculate the RDA.
  3. Estimated Average Demand, Estimated Average Demand. This is the intake that meets the nutrient requirements under consideration for half of the people in a particular group.
  4. acceptable upper intake level, maximum acceptable intake of vitamins and minerals. This is the maximum intake and does not imply the risk of adverse health effects for most healthy people.

DRI (vitamins and minerals) chart for people aged 19-30

Vitamin A (μg / day) 900 700 3000
Vitamin C (mg / day) 75 75 2000
Vitamin D (μg / day) 5 * 5 * 50
Vitamin E (mg / day) 15 15 1000
Vitamin K (μg / day) 120 * 75 * ND
Thiamine (mg / day) 1,2 1.0 ND
Riboflavin (mg / day) 1.3 1.0 ND
Niacin (mg / day) 16 14 35
Vitamin B6 (mg / day) 1.3 1,2 100
Folate (mcg / day) 400 400 1000
Vitamin B12 (μg / day) 2.4 2.4 ND
Pantothenic Acid (mg / day) 5 * 5 * ND
Biotin (μg / day) 30 * 25 * ND
Calcium (mg / day) 1000 * 1000 * 2500
Chromium (μg / day) 35 * 25 * ND
Copper (μg / day) 900 900 10000
Iron (mg / day) 8 18 45
Magnesium (mg / day) 400 310 350
Phosphorus (mg / day) 700 700 4000
Selenium (mcg / day) 55 55 400
Zinc (mg / day) 11 8 40

RDAs are set to meet the needs of the majority of people (97-98%) in the group. AIs defined for adult groups and according to gender are believed to meet the needs of all people in the group. But the lack of data does not allow us to indicate the percentage of persons whose needs are covered by this type of consumption.

Publish DRI Tables

DRIs were published by separate nutrient groups, each group has its own volume, as opposed to the RDA published in a single volume. The first book, published in 1997, was followed by several more. The reader links to the website of the American Institute of Medicine, where DRI tables and links to full reports are available for free.

It is important to remember that nutritional guidelines reflect the state of the art and, as such, continue to evolve.

Adverse Effects of Excessive Nutrient Intake

Although inadequate intake of nutrients has been identified in the past, under- and over-intake is a problem. Therefore, DRIs include a maximum cap, which is the amount of a nutrient that can cause adverse effects. Excessive intake of vitamins and minerals is not only unnecessary, but in some cases can be harmful.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has developed dietary reference values, dietary reference values, for nutrients. EFSA has established maximum allowable levels for the intake of vitamins and minerals. For up-to-date information on these dietary reference values, consult your personal trainers at

6 Nutrientes. Vitaminas y minerales y el agua

6 nutrients, vitamins and minerals and water


Next, we’ll talk about water, another nutrient. 6 nutrients are essential for our body, but water is essential for our existence.

While for some people, fluid intake is not that important to others, it becomes compulsive. For various reasons, there is some confusion about what to drink and how much to drink. There is little research on human water requirements, and the ones that do exist refer mainly to hospitalized patients or athletes in hot climates. Scientists have neglected the problem of hydration for two reasons. Join the assumption that thirst will motivate the person to drink enough water and be confident that the kidneys are doing their job.

Recommendations for fluid intake

It is difficult to determine the needs for water, as opposed to what happens with other nutrients.

Amounts from 1.9 liters were noted. daily up to 7.5 liters. This range may be adequate depending on the situation and factors. Such as sweat, weather, body surface area, body size, calorie intake, and muscle tissue. The emergence of large differences between people, even for the same person.

This is why a personal trainer will evaluate and personalize the amount of food depending on the situation of their clients.

Why should we drink liquids?

The main goal of fluid intake is to stay hydrated, that is, to stay hydrated.

There is a balance when you replace water that the body loses through urine, feces, or through the skin and lungs.

The kidneys dilute urine to maintain a constant internal environment despite changes in consumption. Thirst is felt at approximately 1% dehydration.

This is why thirst-based fluid stimulation works when it is necessary to maintain water balance in healthy, sedentary adults who are in an environment with adequate temperature and who can easily get water

In people leading a sedentary lifestyle, fluid loss is compensated, the average required consumption is 1.4 to 2.6 liters. newspapers.

While the answer is not clear, healthy fluid intake, research on the relationship between disease prevention and fluid intake shows that higher intake may help prevent bladder cancer, kidney stones, gallstones, and colon cancer.

How much water should we drink when we exercise?

For exercise, amounts have been set before, during and after exercise.

Before training

At least 4 hours before training, it is advisable to drink 5 to 7 ml per kilogram of body weight.

In addition, 3 to 5 ml / kg of body weight should be drunk 2 hours before exercise if urine is dark and deficient.

During training

If exercise is done in a hot environment, it can be difficult to prevent dehydration. During prolonged exercise, continuous sweat can exceed 1.8 liters per hour, increasing the need for water. If losses from sweating are not recovered, body temperature will rise, which can cause exhaustion, heatstroke and even death.

Surprisingly, people cannot make up for the sweat loss during exercise. Most people only replace about two-thirds of the water lost through sweat during exercise.

Personal Trainers should be aware of this and communicate that their clients also know and drink enough fluids.

Feeling thirsty is not a reliable indicator during times of severe fluid loss due to sweat during exercise, so fluid replacement is more necessary.

After training

During most physical activity, a little dehydration is normal, so you need to rehydrate. Prevention in advance is also important. Starting hydrated exercise, in addition to drinking fluids during physical activity, is an important part of systematic hydration.

The main goal after exercise is to replenish fluid and electrolyte losses.

One way to control sweat loss is to control your body weight before and after exercise. You should drink 600 to 700 ml of liquid for every 450 g of fluid lost.

Eat sodium-rich foods or an isotonic drink to improve rehydration, replace lost electrolytes and stimulate thirst. Keep in mind that urine is produced during the rehydration process until complete rehydration is achieved.

Weight loss due to fluid loss

For people whose goal is weight loss, they may mistake weight loss during exercise for fat loss and consider it positive. Personal trainers should clarify that weight loss during exercise is due to fluid loss, not fat, and that they should replenish it by hydration. Whenever possible with food rich in sodium or an isotonic drink enriched with electrolytes.

Other indicators of hydration status

There are other indicators of hydration status that, while not as obvious as changes in body weight, can be useful as a monitoring tool. One of the signs of dehydration is strong-smelling, dark yellow urine, decreased frequency of urination, increased resting heart rate, and prolonged muscle pain.

An adult typically produces approximately 1.1 liters of urine per day, or 237 to 296 ml per urine four times a day. Normal urine color is similar to light lemon juice, with the exception of people taking vitamin supplements, which becomes more vivid yellow.

What you can drink and eat before and after exercise

Not only do fluids help to meet the body’s fluid needs, but they also provide food rich in water. For example, pizza is 50% water, milk 90%, soft drinks and juices 89%.

Drinking water before and after exercise or milk, juices, still or still soft drinks and isotonic drinks are suitable for replacing fluids. Similar to those who eat soup, vegetables, and lots of fruits, some of their needs can be covered by these foods.

Caffeinated drinks cause dehydration?

There are people who are concerned about whether caffeinated beverages are dehydrating. Research shows that caffeine tolerance builds up in one to four days, and that people who tolerate it don’t see an increase in urine production. It is for this reason that caffeinated beverages should help you hydrate.

Sodium Chloride Intake

When we have adequate sweat, the consumption of sodium chloride (salt) in the form of a drink or food minimizes urine production and speeds up the restoration of water and electrolyte balance. It follows from this that it is convenient to consume a variety of drinks and foods after training. This is why more fluid is consumed during or around mealtime.

During physical activity, what can you drink?

During physical activity, rapid replacement of fluid from the mouth passing through the digestive system into the bloodstream is assumed. As well as providing the volume of fluid needed to compensate for sweat loss.

A personal trainer will guide the client in fluids that are absorbed quickly and that are desirable. There are various fluids that can effectively replace the loss during exercise. Cold water is a great option unless you are doing prolonged physical activity, in which case sodium replacement is necessary to prevent hypornatremia, a dangerous drop in blood sodium levels.

Isotonic drinks

Other options include commercial or homemade isotonic drinks such as juices or watered-down soft drinks.

In most cases, only water can restore fluid replacement needs.

However, some people find flavored drinks tastier than water and therefore drink more.

It may be helpful to consume carbohydrates with water in cases of resistance aerobic exercise during sessions lasting 60 to 90 minutes.

Commercial isotonic drinks contain water, sugars, and electrolytes (usually sodium, chloride and potassium). It has a slightly lower sugar content than most soft drinks and juices. Its carbohydrate concentration ranges from 6 to 8%, a solution that tends to be rapidly absorbed.

People who want to lose weight and limit their calorie intake may be reluctant to consume isotonic drinks due to their calorie intake. On the other hand, for those who are competitive and want to increase speed and aerobic resistance, carbohydrates are beneficial during exercise. However, those who exercise for health reasons may not benefit from losing weight or being in good physical shape.


In this chapter, where we talk about vitamins, minerals and water, we end a series of 4 chapters in which we talked about the importance of each of the 6 nutrients: protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals and water.

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