Physical activity

ENERGY SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY (I) Phosphagens

Muscle activity depends on the energy stored in ATP. The recovery of ATP in human skeletal muscles is achieved due to the fact that the human body has three energy systems for its recovery:

The phosphagenic system (meaning that it is generated even in the absence of oxygen, is called anaerobic evolution).
Glycolysis (there are two types: fast glycolysis and slow glycolysis, they are also anaerobic).
Oxidative system (aerobic procedure, i.e. oxygen is required).

Of the foods we mostly eat: proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Of these three components, only carbohydrates are converted into energy without the direct participation of oxygen.

What is ATP?

Adenosine triphosphate, the biochemical mechanism responsible for storing and using energy, is produced through cellular respiration. It is the main source of energy for cellular functions in general, including proteins, DNA and RNA macromolecules.

What is ADP?

This is adenosine diphosphate (ADP) – the diphosphate of nucleotides. In other words, a chemical compound consisting of two phosphate radicals bound together and a nucleoside. The nucleoside consists of a pentose sugar, ribose, and a purine base, adenine.

Today we will talk about the phosphagen system.

The phosphagen system is the main basis for performing high-intensity and short-term activities, such as jumping or sprinting. It is also activated at the beginning of any type of exercise, regardless of the intensity.

When we do soft spinning or moderate running for 4-6 km. The energy that we consume in the first seconds comes mainly from the phosphagenic system. This energy environment is stimulated by the chemical reactions of ATP and phosphocreatine. The enzymes adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and creatine kinase also play a role in these reactions

What increases the breakdown of ATP for energy release?

What increases the rate of ATP breakdown is the enzymes adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), which form ADP and inorganic phosphate and release the energy that turns your process into a catabolic reaction.

Creatine kinase increases the rate of ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphocreatine, providing a phosphate group that, when combined with ADP, forms ATP. Which turns this evolution into an anabolic response.

The phosphagenic system cannot provide enough energy for long-term and continuous activity. Although these reactions provide a high energy index, because phosphocreatine and ATP accumulate in the muscles in small amounts.

Type II (fast twitch) muscle fibers generally contain higher concentrations of phosphagens than type I (slow twitch) fibers.

Phosphocreatine degradation

The breakdown of phosphocreatine is largely regulated by the activity of creatine kinase. An increase in the concentration of ADP in muscle cells will stimulate the activity of creatine kinase, and an increase in the concentration of ATP will inhibit it.

When you start exercising, ATP breaks down into ADP, releasing energy for muscle concentration. This increase in ADP concentration activates creatine kinase, which induces the production of ATP by the breakdown of phosphocreatine.

If the exercise continues at a high intensity, creatine kinase activity will remain elevated. If exercise is stopped or continued at a low enough intensity that glycolysis or the oxidative system can supply enough ATP to meet your energy needs in the muscle cells, the concentration of ATP in your body may increase. a muscle cell. This increase in ATP causes a decrease in creatine kinase activity.

In the next article, we will talk about glycolysis and oxidation systems.

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